In November 2016, Japan Tokyo Narita airport immigration, a few old grey-haired particularly eye-catching, they wore uniforms, wear work documents, guiding people to each window through the entry formalities.
This is the epitome of aging in japan. According to the Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of internal affairs data, 2010 to 2015, Japan's population aged over 65 increased from 23% to 26.7%.
The aging of the population, while Japan's total population is still declining, which has caused a special phenomenon in recent years, Japan's social labor shortage.
According to the latest data released by the Japanese Ministry of health, the effective opening rate in Japan in November 2016 (each candidate corresponding to the position number) of 1.41 times, a record high since July 1991.
Enterprise recruitment difficulties, make all over Japan for intensified competition between the labor force, at the same time, Japan also urges enterprises to improve management efficiency, and accelerate innovation, solve the problem of artificial shortage with the new technology and robot etc..
Increasingly serious labor shortage
More than ten o'clock in the evening, there are still a lot of young people in the streets of Shinjuku to distribute flyers around, each train docked, have brought a lot of potential customers.
Young people work very hard, is the people of the bubble economy after the collapse of the Japanese society, a direct impression. However, this does not mean that Japan's employment pressure.
According to the announcement of the Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs Bureau of Japan "statistical yearbook 2017", the Japanese completely unemployed decreased from 3 million 340 thousand in 2010 to 2 million 220 thousand in 2015, total unemployment rate fell from 5.1% to 3.4%. The general effective opening rate correspondingly increased from 0.52 in 2010 to 1.20 in 2015, means that every candidate corresponding jobs increased by more than 2 times, and the posts have more than the number of candidates.
"(Osaka) enterprises are facing shortage of manpower, Tokyo is also the same." The strategic planning department of Osaka Bureau of economic strategy of regional economy as the chief rattan Bo said, serious when even 2 corporate positions only 1 job seekers.
Behind the shortage of labor, in addition to Japan's economic rebound in recent years, the increase in employment opportunities, there is an important factor is the low fertility rate of aging society in Japan has become increasingly serious.
In recent years, Japan's total population continues to decline, from 128 million 57 thousand in 2010 to 2015 in, a decrease of 947 thousand, an average annual reduction of 189 thousand.
Look at Japan's population structure, the population under 15 years of age, accounting for 12.7% of the total population, the population of the age of 15 to 64, accounting for 60.6% of the population over the age of 75 million 918 thousand, accounting for 26.7%, accounting for 33 million 422 thousand of the total population of more than 65. Japan's aging population is the highest in the world, far higher than second of Italy's 22.4% and third of Germany's 21.2%.
In the context of aging and a reduction in the total population, the Japanese labor force decreased from 66 million 320 thousand in 2010 to a total of $65 million 980 thousand in 2015, a total of less than 340 thousand. Therefore, the labor shortage is becoming increasingly serious.
Osaka in response to this problem, began to compete with Tokyo labor. Fujimoto Hiroshi said, in order to attract young workers in Osaka, to solve the problem of raising young children, so that the economy is much better in Osaka.
And the most direct impact of the labor shortage in the enterprise level, began to explore a variety of coping methods and techniques.
Machine replacement tide
Now lack of people, can not recruit workers." Director Takami Shinji told the twenty-first Century economic report Omron Ayabe factory, this will be the operation of people Omron compression 50%, the introduction of robots is part of the labor force, improve the production efficiency by 2 times in 2020.
Labor shortages forced the plant to accelerate the development of robotics. In the factory workshop, a handling robot is debugging, this robot can automatically detect obstacles and people, choose the best route for handling. Once put into use, can replace about 3 people, and the cost is reduced, the efficiency will be greatly improved.
In order to solve the problem of the number of Japanese obstetrician shortage, Waseda University next generation robotics research institutions (Future Robotics Organization) has developed a remote pregnancy testing machine, remote control can do B ultrasound examination for pregnant women. These machines will eventually enter the community, for the convenience of pregnant women, do not run long way to go to the hospital to check.
Similarly, in the Osaka economic and technological innovation center, Osaka innovation center, a start-up company has developed a nursing robot arm, can replace two or three people, the patient from the bed to the wheelchair.
In order to solve the problem of labor shortage, in addition to accelerating technological innovation, enterprises in the management of innovation, in order to improve efficiency.
Omron Ayabe factory production management way is the production unit, the "U" console, can accommodate 1 to 3 workers for a number of business operations. This can reduce the waiting time of workers, to solve the imbalance of the speed of different processes, fast can help slow, but also can be adjusted according to the size of the number of workers.
In addition, the management of the introduction of Internet of things technology, real-time monitoring of each production link, improve efficiency and reduce waste, once the problem can be traced back to the source.
Of course, these can not solve the problem of labor shortage in a short time. In Japan, more and more foreign labor. As a result of the rapid increase in Chinese tourists over the years, Japan's Travel Company, intermediaries work more and more Chinese people, and even many companies are Chinese people founded their own.
However, Osaka economic strategy Bureau officials and OMRON company said on twenty-first Century economic report, currently in Japan, there are still obstacles to hire foreigners. Japan's attitude towards foreign workers and immigrants are more conservative, although these years foreign workers increased faster, but there is no major change.